engineering | Feb 16, 2022

How to Call Google Cloud APIs From Cloudflare Workers

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Valérian Galliat

If you want to handle HTTP requests without managing your own infrastructure, a common solution these days is “serverless functions.” They’re known as Lambda on AWS, as Functions on Google Cloud, Azure, Vercel and Netlify, as Workers on Cloudflare, and as EdgeWorkers on Akamai.

But if you also want to do some processing after returning a HTTP response, Cloudflare Workers is the only service that lets you do it. Because this is a need of ours, we use Cloudflare Workers to handle webhooks ingestion. This allows us to return a very fast response after performing some sanity checks, then deal with queuing and possible error handling and recovery in the background.

However, Cloudflare Workers have quite the limitations compared to the most popular (already pretty limited) serverless functions platforms.

The problem with Cloudflare Workers

Most of the JavaScript backend ecosystem is built around Node.js, but Cloudflare Workers is not. This means all the usual modules we would normally import are not there, and we can’t easily npm install Node.js dependencies. Cloudflare Workers essentially brought Webpack to the backend, as well as all the limitations we usually have with browsers.

And because we depend on Google Cloud Pub/Sub, and the Google Cloud SDK only has a Node.js client for Pub/Sub (not plain JavaScript), we can’t use that directly from Cloudflare Workers.

Note that Google does offer a pure JavaScript SDK (intended for browser usage) known as GAPI which would syntactically be compatible with Cloudflare Workers, but it only supports OAuth or API key authentication, and not service account, which is necessary in our backend case. See Google Cloud authentication strategies.

One solution we had for a while was to call a Google Cloud Function over HTTP from the Cloudflare Worker, and that Cloud Function could itself use the Google Cloud Node.js SDK to call Pub/Sub. This worked, but added an extra overhead to process webhooks, an additional component that can break, as well as an extra piece of infrastructure to maintain (yeah, I lied in the beginning of this article, even serverless functions require you to deal with at least a bit of infrastructure).

So we decided as part of a maintenance effort to remove this Cloud Function and call the Pub/Sub API directly from Cloudflare, despite the lack of a pure JavaScript SDK.

Homemade client overview

This leaves us to build our own Google Cloud client implementing the service account authentication. Fortunately, this is a topic that’s covered in a few forums and articles already.

Here’s the gist:

  • On Google Cloud, create a service account as well as an IAM user associated with it.
  • Give the necessary permissions to that IAM user.
  • Download the service account JSON key which contains a PEM RSA private key, a key ID, and a client email.
  • Thanks to those 3 elements, create and sign a JWT that can be used as a bearer token for Google Cloud APIs, and that will be accepted as long as the requested permissions in the JWT match those of the associated IAM user.

This involves some SubtleCrypto magic, which we’ll cover in this article.

Parsing the service account JSON

Typically this is done with the Google Cloud SDK by setting a GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to the path of the service account JSON key file.

Because we’re managing Cloudflare secrets inside environment variables and not on the file system, we put the JSON string directly in a GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS_JSON environment variable. The name is arbitrary; it’s only a nudge to the original SDK (that we can’t use).

On the worker side, we can fetch it from the environment either via a global variable if you’re writing a service-worker-style worker, or from the env parameter of the fetch function if you’re in a module-style worker:

// Service worker

// Module
export default {
  fetch (request, env, context) {
    const serviceAccount = JSON.parse(env.GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS_JSON)
    // ...

Importing the RSA key

Brace yourself because I am going to go into a little bit of detail about this. And while you can just scroll to the end of this section and copy the code, I think it’s valuable to spend the time to understand how this all works!

The service account JSON has a private_key string, containing a PEM-encoded RSA private key that we can use to sign JWTs. It looks something like this:


Because our Cloudflare Worker is a browser-like environment, we can’t use the Node.js crypto module to deal with cryptography, and we need to use the SubtleCrypto API instead. But SubtleCrypto doesn’t support PEM encoding out of the box. The good news is that it supports PKCS #8 and JWK.

PKCS #8 is the standard encoding for private keys. Our PEM private key above is essentially a PKCS #8 key that’s Base64-encoded, with the addition of a header and footer string.

On the other hand, JWK stands for JSON Web Key, and it’s a way to encode cryptographic keys in a JSON object, as opposed to a binary or Base64-encoded format.

Here is the same key as above, but formatted as JWK:

  "kty": "RSA",
  "n": "pL8kivZkDZn0NPYRpVfe8uM-IO8Fk-d3Qd4EaPcD1MHmXY8Jef1T-v33mMNUHTDiEfGi3n_9kmSN4u0pfr_9rw",
  "e": "AQAB",
  "d": "gQAe6CUYoUHc5B-OH68Xp47i1jzzXCYRzuS_BUXunQfZgncHEO4LZz_7m6ggAx8dWPaxlsXD4QJZbatlVo4wAQ",
  "p": "2E9ZWtZyvLyhy3cwMw80sJb6w_Xirc_x9AkNPvqsiAE",
  "q": "wvm6k2qPn2S8RLyaD1gHwSgX7_oxS44n8HztjgwnBa8",
  "dp": "KnjKDq_0r2JKUm0ApcXijpnWewuYipA97bCpTShjIAE",
  "dq": "ZPnak8ArU5xjGKIok2u-0F1IUGNdpkigDJ9WlCtdBkc",
  "qi": "U_-scWe64dWIkodZRorlYjLtJYsjNikR5MjzJijoE1s"

The JWK way

In a Node.js script, we can directly import the PEM key:

const crypto = require('crypto')

const privateKey = crypto.createPrivateKey({
  key: serviceAccount.private_key,
  format: 'pem',

Which allows us to easily convert it to a JWK:

const jwk = privateKey.export({ format: 'jwk' })

If we carry this JWK to the worker, for example putting the serialized JSON in a GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS_JWK environment variable, we can import it like this:


const algorithm = {
  name: 'RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5',
  hash: {
    name: 'SHA-256',

const extractable = false
const keyUsages = ['sign']

const privateKey = await crypto.subtle.importKey('jwk', jwk, algorithm, extractable, keyUsages)

A couple points here:

  • In the algorithm parameter, we specify were working with a RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 key, which is basically a standard RSA key.
  • We also specify a hash of SHA-256, which is not directly related to the key itself, but will be useful later on when we want to sign a JWT, since we’ll use a RS256 signature (RSA signature with SHA-256).
  • We set extractable to false because we don’t want further code to be able to dump this key. This security measure is especially relevant in browsers, but doesn’t hurt here either.
  • We set keyUsages to sign, allowing this key to only be used for issuing signatures, again an extra measure to ensure that the key is only used for the usages that we intended.

We know all this information because Google Cloud documents it here.

This is great, but that new environment variable is redundant with the RSA key that’s already in the service account JSON. Can we somehow import the PEM key without using an intermediary JWK?

Parsing the PEM key to PKCS #8

While we can’t directly import a PEM key with SubtleCrypto, the MDN has us covered with an example of parsing a PEM-encoded key! I furthered adapted this example to our Google Cloud service account key use case.

First, we strip the newlines from the PEM string:

const pem = serviceAccount.private_key.replace(/\n/g, '')

Then we strip the PEM header and footer markers:

const pemHeader = '-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----';
const pemFooter = '-----END PRIVATE KEY-----';

if (!pem.startsWith(pemHeader) || !pem.endsWith(pemFooter)) {
  throw new Error('Invalid service account private key');

const pemContents = pem.substring(pemHeader.length, pem.length - pemFooter.length);

This leaves us with a Base64-encoded string that we can decode to a Uint8Array. For that I like to use the js-base64 package, which doesn’t have the quirks of messing with the deprecated atob function (which only supports ASCII strings), as well as workarounds like decodeURIComponent(escape(atob(str))).

To be able to use this module, we need to make sure to bundle our code, since Cloudflare doesn’t let us import modules like this. I like to use esbuild for this, but webpack is also a popular alternative.

import { Base64 } from 'js-base64'

const buffer = Base64.toUint8Array(pemContents)

This buffer contains effectively a binary PKCS #8 key that we can import like this:

const algorithm = {
  name: 'RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5',
  hash: {
    name: 'SHA-256',

const extractable = false
const keyUsages = ['sign']

const privateKey = await crypto.subtle.importKey('pkcs8', buffer, algorithm, extractable, keyUsages)

See above for explanation of algorithm, extractable and keyUsage parameters.

Direct JWT vs. OAuth

Google offers us two authorization methods with its APIs in this context. Either with a server-to-server OAuth flow, or via a self-issued JWT. This is documented here:

With some Google APIs, you can make authorized API calls using a signed JWT directly as a bearer token, rather than an OAuth 2.0 access token. When this is possible, you can avoid having to make a network request to Google's authorization server before making an API call. If the API you want to call has a service definition published in the Google APIs GitHub repository, you can make authorized API calls using a JWT instead of an access token.

The direct JWT method is great because we can avoid an extra network call to the OAuth endpoint, as well as extra error handling and retry logic around it! And it looks like the most popular APIs support it.

If the API you want to call doesn’t support it, don’t worry, the approach is very similar. You still need to implement the JWT logic, but instead of using it directly for your API calls, you use it only against Google’s OAuth endpoint to generate an access token, which you can use in your further API calls.

Signing the JWT

Now that we have managed to import the service account private key, we can use it to sign a JWT. The format is documented here.

Essentially, a JWT is made of 3 parts:

  • A JSON header, Base64URL-encoded
  • A JSON payload, Base64URL-encoded
  • A signature, not JSON this time, but you guessed it, Base64URL-encoded

What’s Base64URL? It’s Base64, but slightly tweaked to be URL-safe.

For the Base64 business, I’ll keep using the js-base64 module we imported above (which conveniently supports Base64URL). Let’s start with the header:

const header = Base64.encodeURI(
    alg: 'RS256',
    typ: 'JWT',
    kid: serviceAccount.private_key_id,

As we saw earlier, we’re going to use a RSA signature with SHA-256 (RS256). We’re effectively building a JWT, and we forward the private_key_id in the kid field like Google wants.

Off to the payload. We need 5 fields:

  • iss and sub, both set to the service account email
  • aud, the API endpoint we want to use, in our case, Pub/Sub (not the trailing slash is important)
  • iat, the Unix time at the moment the token was issued (now)
  • exp, the Unix time when the JWT will expire, which can be maximum an hour after iat
const iat = Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000)
const exp = iat + 3600

const payload = Base64.encodeURI(
    iss: serviceAccount.client_email,
    sub: serviceAccount.client_email,
    aud: 'https://pubsub.googleapis.com/',

Next, we can compute the signature. Remember, we still have our privateKey variable from earlier:

const textEncoder = new TextEncoder()
const inputArrayBuffer = textEncoder.encode(`${header}.${payload}`)

const outputArrayBuffer = await crypto.subtle.sign(
  { name: 'RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5' },

const signature = Base64.fromUint8Array(new Uint8Array(outputArrayBuffer), true)

A bit more complexity here. crypto.subtle.sign expects an ArrayBuffer but we have a string, so we use a TextEncoder to convert it. Then, we get the signature as an ArrayBuffer, but in order to encode it, js-base64 expects an Uint8Array, so we do the conversion. Finally, we pass true as second parameter to Base64.fromUint8Array because we want a Base64URL representation.

We now have all we need to assemble our JWT. The 3 components of the token are separated by the . character:

const token = `${header}.${payload}.${signature}`

Calling the Google Cloud API

We can now use our fresh token to issue fetch requests to the Google Cloud API!

const res = await fetch(
    method: 'POST',
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/json',
      Authorization: `Bearer ${token}`

There’s still a bit more work to do, especially when it comes to dealing with possible HTTP errors and handling the token refresh logic. I’ll leave that as an exercise to the reader.

Finally, if you want to use an endpoint that doesn’t support direct JWT like this, and you need to get an OAuth token instead, you can use https://oauth2.googleapis.com/token in the aud field instead, add a scope field to the JWT, and call that OAuth token endpoint to get an access token. Again, all the details are here.

Wrapping up

And just like that, we managed to call Google Cloud APIs from Cloudflare Workers! This got a bit technical because there’s no Cloudflare-ready SDK for it, but this was a great opportunity to learn how Google Cloud authentication normally works with service accounts, and get a better idea of the cryptography behind it.

I hope you learned something! And if you like to work with Cloudflare and Google Cloud, we’re hiring, and that’s what we do... everyday!

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